Nerve Restore - Signal Amplifier
Nothing is more frustrating than an impinged or injured nerve. Signal reduction triggers a whole landslide of negative effects: Weakness, pain, atrophy. After time, these side effects seem like they will last forever—and sometimes do...until now. Enter Nerve Restore.
Nerve Restore is a nerve signal amplifier. In people with impingement or nerve injuries it will help alleviate discomfort, weakness, and muscular atrophy. The enhanced nerve amplitude and velocity, in healthy people as well, should result in increased strength and quicker reflexes/coordination.
Back in 2013 I researched, formulated, and released a product way ahead of its time. Nerve Restore deals with the function, dysfunction, and optimization of nerve signals. Originally targeting the normalization of nerve functions for those suffering from nerve impingement, from herniated discs and such, my research soon delved deeply into the mountain—but not deeply enough to awaken the Balrog of strength and size.
Since then the more "popular" research has caught up and they are actively looking for ways to thicken myelin, the insulation around nerves. Loss of insulation causes electrical "diffusion" and weaker signals. Another focus is seeing how we can strengthen the signals themselves.
Well, they are coming up behind me on a path I already blazed, so let's revisit and focus on the role of nerve signals in muscle growth, mind/muscle connection, sympathetic/parasympathetic functions, and reaction speed.
Key Terms to Know
Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) - A signaling protein crucial for growth, upkeep, and survival of nerves.
Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) - A neurotrophin active in the brain and periphery, aiding in growth, survival and differentiation of neurons and synapses, and a key player in long term memory.
Neurotrophins - An umbrella of NGFs including BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4/5.
Mean Nerve Conduction Velocity (MNCV) - How fast electrical signals move through a nerve.
Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy) - A term used to describe a condition of damage, dysfunction or disease to nerves anywhere in the peripheral nervous system.
Myelin - A type of organic insulation surrounding nerve axons to protect them and increase MNCV, as well as prevent electrical current from escaping the axon.
Protein Kinase C (PKC) - A family of enzymes that control the function of other proteins through the act of phosphorylation.
Schwann Cells - Cells that provide raw materials for myelination.
Ingredients and Function
Catechol is a natural compound found in various fruits and vegetables. 4-methylcatechol is a specific, bioavailable and well-researched form of catechol that provides some potent physiological effects. It's pretty much a super-nutrient for nerves, and a major player in the efficacy of Nerve Restore.
4-MC is widely recognized in research as a potent NGF stimulator. Research in this area tends to give animal models nerve disorders, then treat them with a given compound and see what happens vs. controls. Here's some highlights from the data on 4-MC.
Thermosensitivity is basically the sensory perception of temperature changes, which is often damaged in nerve dysfunction. 4-MC has been shown to promote reinnervation and normalization of thermosensitivity in neuropathy (1).
Diabetes often leads to neuropathy, which causes a significant reduction in MNCV, as well as the NGF content of nerves. Several studies have found a huge benefit and reversal of these symptoms with 4-MC administration. One study showed an increase in NGF of 140% over controls (2), multiple other studies have confirmed the de novo NGF synthesis capability of 4-MC while also demonstrating its ability to significantly increase myelination and nerve blood flow (3–6).
Several studies have given animal models a nerve toxin known as acrylamide monomer (ACR), and examined the potential protective effect of 4-MC. They found similar results as the previously mentioned studies, 4-MC was able to increase MNCV, NGF, and myelination, and researchers noted that it can "accelerate the recovery process clinically, electrophysiologically, biochemically and neuropathologically" (4,7).
Also noteworthy, 4-MC has been shown to promote regeneration of even unmyelinated nerves as well as relieve chronic pain and depression-like behavior in nerve injuries by boosting BDNF (8,9).
Salidroside comes from the Rhodiola Rosea plant and is well known for its numerous health promoting properties.
Several studies have demonstrated salidroside's neuroprotective ability (10–13). Due to this effect, researchers wondered if salidroside might be able to help recovery from sciatic nerve injuries, so they tested it out. In rats with sciatic nerve crush injuries, they looked at several factors, including nerve conduction speed and walking tests. The results showed that salidroside was indeed able to successfully regenerate nerve function (14).
Methylcobalamin is simply the methyl form of Vitamin B12, a key vitamin involved with proper nerve function.
Another well-researched nutrient in the arena of nerve health, methylcobalamin is a no-brainer in this formula. It has been shown to do the following:
Correct nerve damage done from oxidative damage and impaired neural signaling of PKC (15).
Stimulate proteosynthesis in Schwann cells to facilitate neural regeneration (16,17).
Enhance recovery of myelination, muscle action potentials and motor end plate innervation (17).
Improve nerve regeneration and inhibit degeneration from neuronal damage such as crushed sciatic nerves (18–20).
PEA (not to be confused with the other PEA, phenylethylamine) is a fatty acid amide (formed when a fatty acid combines with an amine). Most of its functions in the body involve the regulation of pain and inflammation.
By working through numerous angles to reduce pain and improve nerve signaling, PEA holds large promise. Quite a bit of published data has shown that PEA favorably modulates PPARa, PPARg, CB(1),TRPV1, TNFa, and the mast cells of the immune system to reduce pain, inflammation and discomfort in nerve injuries such as neuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome and sciatic nerve crushes (21–25).
COS is a combination of two different types of glucosamine derived from crustacean shells.
Several studies have shown COS to have a positive outcome on improvement of nerve dysfunction. One study looking at peripheral nerve crush injuries published in the Journal of Microsurgery found that COS significantly improved muscle action potentials, number of regenerated nerve fibers and thickness of myelin sheaths, and even an increase in muscle size of the tibialis posterior (one of the calf muscles) (26).
Other studies have shown COS to promote nerve regeneration and differentiation, functional recovery, and nerve cell adhesion (27,28).
Achyranthes bidentata polypeptides (ABP)
ABP is a polypeptide derived from the achyranthes plant found in China, Japan, Nepal, and India, known for its anti-inflammatory properties.
ABP has been shown repeatedly in research to enhance nerve regeneration and function in sciatic and common peroneal nerve injuries (29–31).
Also of interest, ABP has central as well as peripheral nerve preservation and restoration effects, shown in the Journal of Neuroscience Research to counteract the effect of overstimulated NMDA receptors in the brain by reversing intracellular ROS and mitochondrial damage to the hippocampus (32).
Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1)
The Rg1 group of ginsenoside is a bioactive compound found primarily in the Chinese/Korean Ginseng plant, selected for its specific nerve regeneration properties. The ginsenosides are considered the active compounds in Ginseng.
Recent research has shown GRg1 can successfully promote nerve regeneration after nerve injuries (33–35). After an oxidative insult from administered hydrogen peroxide, GRg1 increases SOD, CAT and GSH with a concurrent reduction in MDA (34). It has also been shown to increase expression of NGF and BDNF through the PKA pathway in Schwann cells (35).
P5P is the active form of Vitamin B6 in the body, and is a crucial factor for a laundry list of functions in the body.
The most recent research has shown that P5P improves clinical symptoms in carpal tunnel syndrome (a nerve related disorder), which means it likely has farther reaching effects on nerve dysfunction throughout the body, (36).
Dipsaci Radix (water extract)
In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Dipsaci Radix has been used to treat dysfunctions of the liver, kidney, tendons and bones. It comes from the plant Dipsacus asperoides.
After nerve injury, muscle atrophy tends to onset fairly quickly. Dipsaci helps improve muscle size and glycogen storage in tissues surrounding a nerve injury (37).
Also from TCM, Radix Hedysari is a herbal preperation used for nerve regeneration.
Radix Hedysari has been shown to be effective at improving peripheral nerve regeneration, MNCV, nerve fiber and axon diameter, number of nerve fibers, and amplification ratio (38–40).
Lion's Mane mushroom extract 4:1 (Hericium erinaceus)
Lion's Mane Mushroom extract is an edible mushroom found in North America, Europe and Asia.
Lion's Mane is considered a neurotrophic agent, as it has been shown in multiple studies to induce NGF synthesis (41,42). Two studies have also shown oral administration of Lion's Mane to regenerate injured peroneal nerves in rats (43,44). Finally, it has been shown to directly regulate myelin genesis in vitro (45).
Earthworm extract (Dilong)
Exactly what it sounds like, this compound widely used in TCM is an extract from earthworms.
Two recent studies have demonstrated earthworm extract's ability to increase nerve cell regeneration through Schwann cell activity, stimulating myelination (46,47).
Oftentimes, nerve injuries take a massive toll on us mentally and physically. We watch, helpless, as our hard-earned size and strength gains falter and fade away. After many months of research, Evolutionary Muse offers a potential solution. While your physician or therapist should guide you along the road to recovery, and your trainer can advise you how to best prevent future injuries, EvoMuse has brought to you a product that will jumpstart the processes of recovery and help restore, and optimize, nerve function.
Nerve Restore...fire away.
1. Hsiao T-H, Fu Y-S, Ho W-Y, Chen T-H, Hsieh Y-L. Promotion of thermal analgesia and neuropeptidergic skin reinnervation by 4-methylcatechol in resiniferatoxin-induced neuropathy. Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci. [Internet]. 2013 Aug [cited 2013 Dec 4];29(8):405–11. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23906230
2. Hanaoka Y, Ohi T, Furukawa S, Furukawa Y, Hayashi K, Matsukura S. Effect of 4-methylcatechol on sciatic nerve growth factor level and motor nerve conduction velocity in experimental diabetic neuropathic process in rats. Exp. Neurol. [Internet]. 1992 Mar [cited 2013 Dec 28];115(2):292–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1735473
3. Hanaoka Y, Ohi T, Furukawa S, Furukawa Y, Hayashi K, Matsukura S. The therapeutic effects of 4-methylcatechol, a stimulator of endogenous nerve growth factor synthesis, on experimental diabetic neuropathy in rats. J. Neurol. Sci. [Internet]. 1994 Mar [cited 2013 Dec 28];122(1):28–32. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8195800
4. Saita K, Ohi T, Hanaoka Y, Furukawa S, Furukawa Y, Hayashi K, et al. Effects of 4-methylcatechol, a stimulator of endogenous nerve growth factor synthesis, on experimental acrylamide-induced neuropathy in rats. Neurotoxicology [Internet]. 1995 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 28];16(3):403–12. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8584273
5. Kaechi K, Ikegami R, Nakamura N, Nakajima M, Furukawa Y, Furukawa S. 4-Methylcatechol, an inducer of nerve growth factor synthesis, enhances peripheral nerve regeneration across nerve gaps. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. [Internet]. 1995 Mar [cited 2013 Dec 28];272(3):1300–4. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7891347
6. Sameni H, Panahi M. The Effect of Co-administration of 4-Methylcatechol and Progesterone on Sciatic Nerve Function and Neurohistological Alterations in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Neuropathy in Rats. Cell J. [Internet]. 2011 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 28];13(1):31–8. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3652538&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
7. Saita K, Ohi T, Hanaoka Y, Furukawa S, Furukawa Y, Hayashi K, et al. A catechol derivative (4-methylcatechol) accelerates the recovery from experimental acrylamide-induced neuropathy. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. [Internet]. 1996 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 28];276(1):231–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8558436
8. Hsieh Y-L, Chiang H, Tseng T-J, Hsieh S-T. Enhancement of cutaneous nerve regeneration by 4-methylcatechol in resiniferatoxin-induced neuropathy. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. [Internet]. 2008 Mar [cited 2013 Dec 28];67(2):93–104. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18219259
9. Fukuhara K, Ishikawa K, Yasuda S, Kishi****a Y, Kim H-K, Kakeda T, et al. Intracerebroventricular 4-methylcatechol (4-MC) ameliorates chronic pain associated with depression-like behavior via induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. [Internet]. 2012 Aug [cited 2013 Dec 28];32(6):971–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22198556
10. Zhang S, Chen X, Yang Y, Zhou X, Liu J, Ding F. Neuroprotection against cobalt chloride-induced cell apoptosis of primary cultured cortical neurons by salidroside. Mol. Cell. Biochem. [Internet]. 2011 Aug [cited 2013 Dec 29];354(1-2):161–70. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21499890
11. Yu S, Shen Y, Liu J, Ding F. Involvement of ERK1/2 pathway in neuroprotection by salidroside against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death. J. Mol. Neurosci. [Internet]. 2010 Mar [cited 2013 Dec 29];40(3):321–31. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19787459
12. Chen X, Zhang Q, Cheng Q, Ding F. Protective effect of salidroside against H2O2-induced cell apoptosis in primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons. Mol. Cell. Biochem. [Internet]. 2009 Dec [cited 2013 Dec 29];332(1-2):85–93. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19554425
13. Chen X, Liu J, Gu X, Ding F. Salidroside attenuates glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons of rats. Brain Res. [Internet]. 2008 Oct 31 [cited 2013 Dec 29];1238:189–98. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18680733
14. Sheng Q-S, Wang Z-J, Zhang J, Zhang Y-G. Salidroside promotes peripheral nerve regeneration following crush injury to the sciatic nerve in rats. Neuroreport [Internet]. 2013 Mar 27 [cited 2013 Dec 28];24(5):217–23. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23358450
15. Mizukami H, Ogasawara S, Yamagishi S-I, Takahashi K, Yagihashi S. Methylcobalamin effects on diabetic neuropathy and nerve protein kinase C in rats. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. [Internet]. 2011 Apr [cited 2013 Dec 28];41(4):442–50. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21128935
16. Yamatsu K, Yamanishi Y, Kaneko T, Ohkawa I. [Pharmacological studies on degeneration and regeneration of the peripheral nerves. (2) Effects of methylcobalamin on mitosis of Schwann cells and incorporation of labeled amino acid into protein fractions of crushed sciatic nerve in rats]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. [Internet]. 1976 Mar [cited 2013 Dec 28];72(2):269–78. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/987971
17. Liao W-C, Chen J-R, Wang Y-J, Tseng G-F. Methylcobalamin, but not methylprednisolone or pleiotrophin, accelerates the recovery of rat biceps after ulnar to musculocutaneous nerve transfer. Neuroscience [Internet]. 2010 Dec 15 [cited 2013 Dec 28];171(3):934–49. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20884334
18. Okada K, Tanaka H, Temporin K, Okamoto M, Kuroda Y, Moritomo H, et al. Methylcobalamin increases Erk1/2 and Akt activities through the methylation cycle and promotes nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve injury model. Exp. Neurol. [Internet]. 2010 Apr;222(2):191–203. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20045411
19. Yamazaki K, Oda K, Endo C, Kikuchi T, Wakabayashi T. Methylcobalamin (methyl-B12) promotes regeneration of motor nerve terminals degenerating in anterior gracile muscle of gracile axonal dystrophy (GAD) mutant mouse. Neurosci. Lett. [Internet]. 1994 Mar 28 [cited 2013 Dec 28];170(1):195–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8041506
20. Yamatsu K, Kaneko T, Kitahara A, Ohkawa I. [Pharmacological studies on degeneration and regeneration of peripheral nerves. (1) Effects of methylcobalamin and cobamide on EMG patterns and loss of muscle weight in rats with crushed sciatic nerve]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. [Internet]. 1976 Mar [cited 2013 Dec 28];72(2):259–68. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/987970
21. Di Cesare Mannelli L, D’Agostino G, Pacini A, Russo R, Zanardelli M, Ghelardini C, et al. Palmitoylethanolamide is a disease-modifying agent in peripheral neuropathy: pain relief and neuroprotection share a PPAR-alpha-mediated mechanism. Mediators Inflamm. [Internet]. 2013 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 28];2013:328797. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3596927&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
22. Bettoni I, Comelli F, Colombo A, Bonfanti P, Costa B. Non-neuronal cell modulation relieves neuropathic pain: efficacy of the endogenous lipid palmitoylethanolamide. CNS Neurol. Disord. Drug Targets [Internet]. 2013 Mar 1 [cited 2013 Dec 28];12(1):34–44. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23394519
23. Conigliaro R, Drago V, Foster PS, Schievano C, Di Marzo V. Use of palmitoylethanolamide in the entrapment neuropathy of the median in the wrist. Minerva Med. [Internet]. 2011 Apr [cited 2013 Dec 28];102(2):141–7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21483401
24. Calabrò RS, Gervasi G, Marino S, Mondo PN, Bramanti P. Misdiagnosed chronic pelvic pain: pudendal neuralgia responding to a novel use of palmitoylethanolamide. Pain Med. [Internet]. 2010 May [cited 2013 Dec 28];11(5):781–4. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20345619
25. Costa B, Comelli F, Bettoni I, Colleoni M, Giagnoni G. The endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide, has anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects in a murine model of neuropathic pain: involvement of CB(1), TRPV1 and PPARgamma receptors and neurotrophic factors. Pain [Internet]. 2008 Oct 31 [cited 2013 Dec 28];139(3):541–50. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18602217
26. Gong Y, Gong L, Gu X, Ding F. Chitooligosaccharides promote peripheral nerve regeneration in a rabbit common peroneal nerve crush injury model. Microsurgery [Internet]. 2009 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 28];29(8):650–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19653322
27. Jiang M, Zhuge X, Yang Y, Gu X, Ding F. The promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration by chitooligosaccharides in the rat nerve crush injury model. Neurosci. Lett. [Internet]. 2009 May 1 [cited 2013 Dec 15];454(3):239–43. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19429091
28. Yang Y, Liu M, Gu Y, Lin S, Ding F, Gu X. Effect of chitooligosaccharide on neuronal differentiation of PC-12 cells. Cell Biol. Int. [Internet]. 2009 Mar [cited 2013 Dec 28];33(3):352–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19272331
29. Cheng Q, Yuan Y, Sun C, Gu X, Cao Z, Ding F. Neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions of Achyranthes bidentata polypeptides on cultured dorsal root ganglia of rats and on crushed common peroneal nerve of rabbits. Neurosci. Lett. [Internet]. 2013 Dec 17 [cited 2013 Dec 28]; Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361134
30. Wang Y, Shen W, Yang L, Zhao H, Gu W, Yuan Y. The protective effects of Achyranthes bidentata polypeptides on rat sciatic nerve crush injury causes modulation of neurotrophic factors. Neurochem. Res. [Internet]. 2013 Mar [cited 2013 Dec 28];38(3):538–46. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23242788
31. Yuan Y, Shen H, Yao J, Hu N, Ding F, Gu X. The protective effects of Achyranthes bidentata polypeptides in an experimental model of mouse sciatic nerve crush injury. Brain Res. Bull. [Internet]. 2010 Jan 15 [cited 2013 Dec 28];81(1):25–32. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19646511
32. Shen H, Yuan Y, Ding F, Hu N, Liu J, Gu X. Achyranthes bidentata polypeptides confer neuroprotection through inhibition of reactive oxygen species production, Bax expression, and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. J. Neurosci. Res. [Internet]. 2010 Mar 15 [cited 2013 Dec 28];88(3):669–76. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19774671
33. Ma J, Li W, Tian R, Lei W. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes peripheral nerve regeneration in rat model of nerve crush injury. Neurosci. Lett. [Internet]. 2010 Jul 5 [cited 2013 Dec 28];478(2):66–71. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20438804
34. Ma J, Liu J, Wang Q, Yu H, Chen Y, Xiang L. The beneficial effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on Schwann cells subjected to hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury. Int. J. Biol. Sci. [Internet]. 2013 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 29];9(6):624–36. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3708042&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
35. Liang W, Ge S, Yang L, Yang M, Ye Z, Yan M, et al. Ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 promote proliferation and expression of neurotrophic factors in primary Schwann cell cultures. Brain Res. [Internet]. 2010 Oct 21 [cited 2013 Dec 29];1357:19–25. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20682297
36. Talebi M, Andalib S, Bakhti S, Ayromlou H, Aghili A, Talebi A. Effect of vitamin b6 on clinical symptoms and electrodiagnostic results of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Adv. Pharm. Bull. [Internet]. 2013 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 28];3(2):283–8. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3848223&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
37. Jung H-S, Noh C-K, Ma S-H, Hong EK, Sohn N-W, Kim Y-B, et al. Effect of Dipsaci radix on hind limb muscle atrophy of sciatic nerve transected rats. Am. J. Chin. Med. [Internet]. 2009 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 29];37(6):1069–84. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19938217
38. Wang Z, Zhang P, Kou Y, Yin X, Han N, Jiang B. Hedysari extract improves regeneration after peripheral nerve injury by enhancing the amplification effect. PLoS One [Internet]. 2013 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 29];8(7):e67921. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3700897&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
39. Wang ZY, Zhang PX, Han N, Kou YH, Yin XF, Jiang BG. Effect of Modified Formula Radix Hedysari on the Amplification Effect during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration. Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. [Internet]. 2013 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 29];2013:647982. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3595679&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
40. Wei S-Y, Zhang P-X, Han N, Dang Y, Zhang H-B, Zhang D-Y, et al. Effects of Hedysari polysaccharides on regeneration and function recovery following peripheral nerve injury in rats. Am. J. Chin. Med. [Internet]. 2009 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 29];37(1):57–67. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19222112
41. Lai P-L, Naidu M, Sabaratnam V, Wong K-H, David RP, Kuppusamy UR, et al. Neurotrophic Properties of the Lion’s Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms [Internet]. 2013 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 29];15(6):539–54. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24266378
42. Mori K, Obara Y, Hirota M, Azumi Y, Kinugasa S, Inatomi S, et al. Nerve growth factor-inducing activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Biol. Pharm. Bull. [Internet]. 2008 Sep [cited 2013 Dec 29];31(9):1727–32. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18758067
43. Wong K-H, Naidu M, David RP, Bakar R, Sabaratnam V. Neuroregenerative potential of lion’s mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (higher Basidiomycetes), in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury (review). Int. J. Med. Mushrooms [Internet]. 2012 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 29];14(5):427–46. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23510212
44. Wong K-H, Naidu M, David P, Abdulla MA, Abdullah N, Kuppusamy UR, et al. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae). Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. [Internet]. 2011 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 16];2011:580752. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3176599&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
45. Kolotushkina E V, Moldavan MG, Voronin KY, Skibo GG. The influence of Hericium erinaceus extract on myelination process in vitro. Fiziol. Zh. [Internet]. 2003 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 29];49(1):38–45. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12675022
46. Chang Y-M, Shih Y-T, Chen Y-S, Liu C-L, Fang W-K, Tsai C-H, et al. Schwann Cell Migration Induced by Earthworm Extract via Activation of PAs and MMP2/9 Mediated through ERK1/2 and p38. Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. [Internet]. 2011 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 29];2011:395458. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3135425&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
47. Chang Y-M, Chi W-Y, Lai T-Y, Chen Y-S, Tsai F-J, Tsai C-H, et al. Dilong: role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Evid. Based. Complement. Alternat. Med. [Internet]. 2011 Jan [cited 2013 Dec 29];2011:380809. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3136393&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract